The Bibliography Latex Package Inputenc

LaTeX supports many worldwide languages by means of some special packages. In this article is explained how to import and use those packages to typeset your documents in Greek.

[edit] Introduction

Greek language is written with a special alphabet, for this reason some packages have to be included in the preamble to support it.

documentclass{article}   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[greek]{babel}\usepackage[LGR]{fontenc}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \begin{abstract} Αυτή είναι μια σύντομη περιγραφή του θέματος σαφέστερα εξηγείται στο παρόν έγγραφο \end{abstract}   \section{εισαγωγή} Αυτό είναι το πρώτο τμήμα του εγγράφου. Είναι μια εισαγωγική παράγραφο.   \section{δεύτερο τμήμα} Το δεύτερο τμήμα του εγγράφου. Αυτή η ενότητα μπορεί να περιέχει μαθηματική σημειογραφία.

There are some packages in this document related to the encoding and special characters. These packages will be explained in the next sections.

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Input encoding

Modern computer systems allow you to input letters of national alphabets directly from the keyboard. In order to handle a variety of input encodings used for different groups of languages and/or on different computer platforms LaTeX employs the inputenc package to set up input encoding. This package properly display characters in the Greek alphabet, to use this package add the next line to the preamble of your document:


The recommended input encoding is utf-8. You can also use other encodings depending on your operating system, for instance, iso-8859-7 will also support Greek characters.

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Font encoding

To proper LaTeX document generation you must also choose a font encoding which supports specific characters from Greek language, this is accomplished by the package:


The default LaTeX encoding is .

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Language-specific packages and commands

Basic language functionalities are achived by importing the babel package for the Greek language in the preamble.


Default LaTeX capabilities can be extended. Let's see a complete example with Latin and Greek characters.

\documentclass{article}   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[greek]{babel}\usepackage{alphabeta}   \usepackage[LGR, T1]{fontenc}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \begin{abstract} Αυτή είναι μια σύντομη περιγραφή του θέματος σαφέστερα εξηγείται στο παρόν έγγραφο \end{abstract}   \section{εισαγωγή} Αυτό είναι το πρώτο τμήμα του εγγράφου. Είναι μια εισαγωγική παράγραφο.   \section{δεύτερο τμήμα} Το δεύτερο τμήμα του εγγράφου. Αυτή η ενότητα μπορεί να περιέχει μαθηματική σημειογραφία.   \[x^2 + y^2 - \alpha = 4τ + 5α \]   \textlatin{Latin text can also be added to the document.}   \end{document}

The babel package will take care of the hyphenation and will automatically tanslate some elements in the document, such as the table of contents and the abstract. Below is a description of the rest of the commands.

This package allows to put greek characters in mathematical mode. Instead of usign the comands and so on you can use directly the keyboard input, as shown in the equation of the example.
This command will set two encodings for the fonts in this document. LGR for Greek text and T1 for Latin text.
Inside the braces of this command you can put text in Latin characters. Useful for brief anotations.

Notice also that in mathematical mode the Latin characters work properly, even if the T1 encoding is not set.

  Open an example in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Further reading

For more information see

\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\usepackage[LGR]{fontenc}
\usepackage[greek]{babel}

LaTeX supports many worldwide languages by means of some special packages. In this article is explained how to import and use those packages to create documents in French.

[edit] Introduction

French language has some accentuated words and special characters. For this reason the preamble of your file must be modified accordingly to support these characters and some other features.

\documentclass[french]{article}   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}\usepackage{babel}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \vspace{2cm}%Add a 2cm space   \begin{abstract} Ceci est un bref résumé du contenu du document écrit en français. \end{abstract}   \section{Section d'introduction} Il s'agit de la première section, nous ajoutons des éléments supplémentaires et tout sera correctement orthographiés. En outre, si un mot est trop long et doit être tronqué, babel va essayer de tronquer correctement en fonction de la langue.   \section{Section théorèmes} Cette section est de voir ce qui se passe avec les commandes de texte qui définissent. \end{document}

There are two packages in this document related to the encoding and the special characters. These packages will be explained in the next sections.

If your are looking for instructions on how to use more than one language in a sinlge document, for instance English and French, see the International language support article.

  Open an example of the babel package in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Input encoding

Modern computer systems allow you to input letters of national alphabets directly from the keyboard. In order to handle a variety of input encodings used for different groups of languages and/or on different computer platforms LaTeX employs the inputenc package to set up input encoding. In this case the package properly displays characters in the French alphabet. To use this package add the next line to the preamble of your document:


The recommended input encoding is utf-8. You can use other encodings depending on your operating system.

  Open an example of the babel package in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Font encoding

To proper LaTeX document generation you must also choose a font encoding which has to support specific characters for French language, this is accomplished by the package:


Even though the default encoding works well in French, using this specific encoding will avoid glitches with some specific characters. The default LaTeX encoding is .

  Open an example of the babel package in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Language-specific packages and commands

To extended the default LaTeX capabilities, for proper hyphenation and translating the names of the document elements, import the babel package for the French language. The language option should be passed to the command.


Then option is recommended for a generic document, if you need Canadian localization you can use instead.

\documentclass[french]{article}   %encoding%--------------------------------------\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[T1]{fontenc}%--------------------------------------   %French-specific commands%--------------------------------------\usepackage{babel}\usepackage[autolanguage]{numprint}%--------------------------------------   %Hyphenation rules%--------------------------------------\usepackage{hyphenat}\hyphenation{mathéma-tiques récu-pérer}%--------------------------------------   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \vspace{2cm}%Add a 2cm space   \begin{abstract} Ceci est un bref résumé du contenu du document écrit en français. \end{abstract}   \section{Section d'introduction} Il s'agit de la première section, nous ajoutons des éléments supplémentaires et tout sera correctement orthographiés. En outre, si un mot est trop long et doit être tronqué, babel va essayer de tronquer correctement en fonction de la langue.   \section{Section théorèmes} Cette section est de voir ce qui se passe avec les commandes de texte qui définissent.   \begin{itemize}\item premier élément \item deuxième élément \end{itemize}   \[\lim x = \theta + \nombre{152383.52} \]   \end{document}

In this document an additional command is used in the section of the preamble for Language-specific features. changes the formatting of the numbers written inside the braces of the command.

Notice also that the elements in a list have changed, they have a different format.

  Open an example of the babel package in ShareLaTeX

[edit] Hyphenation

Sometimes for formatting reasons some words have to be broken up in syllables separated by a (hyphen) to continue the word in a new line. For example, mathématiques could become mathéma-tiques. The package babel, whose usage was described in the previous section, usually does a good job breaking up the words correctly, but if this is not the case you can use a couple of commands in your preamble.

The first command will import the package hyphenat and the second line is a list of space-separated words with defined hyphenation rules. On the other side, if you want a word not to be broken automatically, use the command within your document.

  Open an example of the babel package in ShareLaTeX

[edit]Further reading

For more information see

\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
\documentclass[french]{article}\usepackage{babel}
\usepackage{hyphenat}\hyphenation{mathéma-tiques récu-pérer}

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